Guide for Authors

1. INTRODUCTION 3.2.1. Title Page 4.2. Submission Declaration
1.1. Open Access 3.2.2. Abstract and Keywords 4.3. Copyright
1.2. Article Categories 3.2.3. Main Text 4.4. The Editorial and Peer Review Process
2. BEFORE YOU BEGIN 3.2.4. Conflicts of Interest Statement 4.4.1. Peer Review
2.1. Ethical Approval of Studies and Informed Consent 3.2.5. Acknowledgments 5. AFTER ACCEPTANCE
2.2. Disclosure of Conflicts of Interest 3.2.6. Figures 5.1. Preparation for Publication
2.3. Reporting Clinical Trials 3.2.7. Tables 6. AUTHOR INQUIRIES
2.4. Previous Publication or Duplicate Submission 3.2.8. Supplementary Data 6.1. Forms
3. MANUSCRIPT PREPARATION 3.2.9. References 6.2. English Language Editing
3.1. Basic Criteria 4. MANUSCRIPT SUBMISSION 6.3. Editorial Office
3.2. Manuscript Sections 4.1. Supporting Documents 6.4. Publisher

The AMH Editors may revise these Instructions to Authors periodically; authors should consult a recent issue of the Journal or visit for the latest version. The Editorial Office does not accept manuscripts that are not prepared according to these instructions, which will be returned to the author(s) without review.


The Asian Association for Frailty and Sarcopenia (AAFS) was founded to promote research efforts, both in Asia and internationally, relevant to frailty, sarcopenia and other age-related conditions, as well as servicing the healthcare needs of older people. The official AAFS journal is Aging Medicine and Healthcare (AMH), formerly the Journal of Clinical Gerontology and Geriatrics (JCGG), which was founded in 2010. JCGG was renamed AMH from 2019, to reflect a change to a more intensive focus on research topics including aging medicine, frailty, sarcopenia, and other age-related conditions, and healthcare services for older people. AMH also has the honor of being the official journal of the Taiwan Association for Integrated Care (TAIC), which promotes care integration for age-related conditions.

The principal aims of AMH include:

1.  Disseminating professional perspectives on international advances in aging research

2.  Promoting international collaboration in aging medicine

3.  Facilitating the development of healthcare systems with a life-course approach

4.  Encouraging international research collaboration Aging Medicine and related topics

To pursue this mission, the AMH covers topics that include, but are not limited to: aging medicine, healthy aging, and health service research for older adults, with a strong focus on the biology, and pathophysiology of frailty, sarcopenia and other age-related conditions, and therapeutic interventions for people with these conditions.

The AMH welcomes Reviews and Original Research articles, Brief Communications, Case Reports, Letters to the Editor, and Editorials. The Editorial Board requires authors to comply with the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals, which are compiled by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE):

1.1. Open Access

The AMH is a subsidized open access journal. The Asian Association for Frailty and Sarcopenia (AAFS) pays the publishing costs incurred by the journal; authors pay no Article Processing Charges or Publication Fee.

Permitted (re)use is outlined by the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs license, which permits third parties to distribute and/or copy the article, or include it in a collective work (such as an anthology) for non-commercial purposes, on condition that they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

The AMH is an Open Access journal, currently indexed in: ScienceDirect, Scopus, and Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI).

1.2. Article Categories

From the list of article categories published by the journal below, please select the one that best describes your paper. If your paper does not fall into any of these categories, please contact the Editorial Office.

1.2.1. Editorials

Editorials are short articles or comments concerning a specific paper in AMH or a topical issue in the field. They are usually invited but unsolicited editorials may be submitted and will be given due consideration.

Format guide

  • Word limit: 1,500 words
  • References: 10 maximum

1.2.2. Review Articles

Reviews aim to provide the reader with a balanced overview of an important and topical issue in research or clinical practice. They should cover aspects of a topic in which scientific consensus exists as well as aspects that remain controversial and are the subject of ongoing scientific research. All articles and data sources reviewed should include information about the specific type of study or analysis, population, intervention, exposure, and tests or outcomes. All articles or data sources should be selected systematically for inclusion in the review and critically evaluated.

Format guide

  • Word limit: 4,500 words
  • Abstract: unstructured, 250 words maximum
  • References: 80 maximum
  • Tables/Figures: 6 maximum

1.2.3. Original Research Articles

Research papers typically include randomized trials, intervention studies, cohort studies, cost-effectiveness analyses, case-control studies, and surveys with high response rates, which represent new and significant contributions to the field.

Section headings: Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Conflicts of Interest Statement, Acknowledgments (if any), and References.

The Introduction should provide a brief background to the subject of the paper, explain the importance of the study, and state a precise study question or purpose.

The Methods section should describe the study design and methods (including the setting and dates, patients/participants with inclusion and exclusion criteria, variables observed, essential features of any interventions, main outcome measures, laboratory protocols, or data sources and how these were selected for the study); statistical procedures employed in the data analysis should be stated.

The Results section should present the study results in a logical sequence, complemented with tables and/or figures. Ensure that the text does not unnecessarily repeat data from tables and/or figures. Only emphasize and summarize the essential features of the main outcome measures, and the main results.

The Discussion section should be used to draw attention to new and important aspects of the study, put the results in context of published literature on the topic, assess the implications of the findings, and state the conclusions that follow from the study results.

Format guide

  • Word limit: 3,500 words
  • Abstract: structured, 250 words maximum
  • References: 50 maximum
  • Tables/Figures: 6 maximum

1.2.4. Brief Communications

These reports comprise concise presentations of preliminary experimental results, instrumentation or analytic techniques, or aspects of clinical practice that are not fully investigated, verified or perfected but which may be of widespread interest or application.

Section headings: Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Conflicts of Interest Statement, Acknowledgments (if any), and References.

The Editors reserve the right to decide what constitutes a Brief Communication.

Format guide

  • Word limit: 1,500 words, no subheadings
  • Abstract: unstructured, 150 words maximum
  • References: 15 maximum
  • Tables/Figures: 2 maximum

1.2.5. Case Reports

These are short discussions of a case or case series with unique features, not described previously, that make an important teaching point or scientific observation. They may describe novel techniques or use of equipment, or new information on diseases of importance.

Section heading: Abstract, Introduction, Case Presentation, Discussion, Conflicts of Interest Statement, Acknowledgments (if any), and References.

The Introduction should describe the purpose of the report, the significance of the disease and its specificity, and briefly review the relevant literature.

The Case Presentation should include statements of the problem, patient history, diagnosis, treatment, outcome and any other pertinent information.

The Discussion should compare, analyze and discuss the similarities and differences between this case and similar cases reported in other published articles. The importance or specificity of the case should be restated when discussing the differential diagnoses. Suggest the prognosis of the disease and possibility of prevention.

Format guide

  • Author(s): 6 maximum
  • Word limit: 2,000 words
  • Abstract: unstructured, 250 words maximum
  • References: 20 maximum
  • Tables/Figures: 3 maximum

1.2.6. Letters to the Editor

These include brief constructive comments in response to previously published AMH articles, interesting cases that do not meet the requirement of being truly exceptional, and other brief technical or clinical notes of general interest. Letters are edited, sometimes extensively, to sharpen their focus. They may be sent for peer review at the discretion of AMH Editors.

Letters should have a title, and include the corresponding author’s mailing and e-mail addresses.

Format guide

  • Word limit: 600 words
  • References: 5 maximum
  • Tables/Figures: 1 maximum


2.1. Ethical Approval of Studies and Informed Consent

For experimental investigations on humans or animals, appropriate institutional review board or ethics committee approval is required, and the manuscript Methods section must detail such approval. All authors of studies involving human subjects, particularly those who do not have formal ethics review committees, should adhere to the principles outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki (World Medical Association. Declaration of Helsinki: ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects.

For investigations with human participants, state explicitly in the Methods section that informed consent was obtained from all participating adults or from parents or legal guardians for minors or incapacitated adults, together with the manner in which informed consent was granted (ie, orally or written).

2.1.1. Identification of patients in descriptions, photographs and pedigrees

A signed statement of informed consent to publish (in print and online) patient descriptions, photographs and pedigrees should be obtained from all persons (parents or legal guardians for minors) who can be identified (including by the patients themselves) in such written descriptions, photographs or pedigrees. Such persons should be shown the manuscript before its submission. Omitting data or making data less specific to de-identify patients is acceptable, but changing any such data is not acceptable. Please note that masking the eye region in patient photographs is inadequate protection of anonymity.

All animal experiments should comply with the ARRIVE guidelines and should be carried out in accordance with the U.K. Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act, 1986 and associated guidelines, EU Directive 2010/63/EU for animal experiments, or the National Institutes of Health Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (NIH Publications No. 8023, revised 1978). The Methods section should state which guidelines for their care and use were followed. Investigators who do not have formal institutional guidelines relating to animal experiments, should follow the European Commission Directive 86/609/EEC for animal experiments hand state this in the Methods section.

2.2. Disclosure of Conflicts of Interest

A conflict of interest occurs when an individual’s objectivity is potentially compromised by a desire for financial gain, prominence, professional advancement or a successful outcome. AMH Editors strive to ensure that what is published in the Journal is as balanced, objective and evidence-based as possible. Since it is difficult to distinguish between an actual conflict of interest and a perceived conflict of interest, the Journal requires authors to disclose all and any potential conflicts of interest; these include any financial, personal or other relationships with other people or organizations within 3 years of beginning the submitted work that could inappropriately influence, or be perceived to influence, their work.

Conflicts of interest may be financial or non-financial. Financial conflicts include financial relationships such as honoraria; educational grants; participation in speakers’ bureaus; membership, employment, consultancies, stock ownership, or other equity interest; expert testimony or patent-licensing arrangements. Non-financial conflicts include personal or professional relationships, affiliations, academic competition, intellectual passion, knowledge or beliefs that might affect objectivity.

Please ensure that any conflicts of interest and sources of funding are fully declared on page 2 of the AMH Authorship & Conflicts of Interest Statement form.

2.3. Reporting Clinical Trials

The AMH has adopted the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) requirement for registration in a public trials registry as a precondition for considering clinical trials for publication. Such trials must be registered upon or before patient enrolment. Include the clinical trial registration number at the end of the article Abstract.

For this purpose, a clinical trial is defined as any research study that prospectively assigns human participants or groups of humans to one or more health-related interventions to evaluate the effects of health outcomes. Health-related interventions include any intervention used to modify a biomedical or health-related outcome (for example drugs, surgical procedures, devices, behavioral treatments, dietary interventions, and process-of-care changes). Health outcomes include any biomedical or health-related measures obtained in patients or participants, including pharmacokinetic measures and adverse events.

Purely observational studies (those in which the assignment of the medical intervention is not at the discretion of the investigator) do not require registration. Further information can be found at

2.4. Previous Publication or Duplicate Submission

3.1. Basic Criteria

Articles should be written in English using American spellings, and meet the following basic criteria: the material is original, the information is important, the writing is clear and concise, the study methods are appropriate, the data are valid, and the conclusions are reasonable and supported by the data.

3.1.1. Style and format

  • Articles should be prepared in the simplest form possible using Microsoft Word document format. All text should be double-spaced (including references, tables and figure legends) on an A4 size (297 × 210 mm) page, with 2.5 cm margins. We will modify the typeface, font size, and so on according to the journal style.
  • Include text, references, table headings and tables, and figure legends in a single file.
  • You may use automatic page numbering, but do NOT use other kinds of automatic formatting such as footnotes, headers or footers. References especially should NOT be formatted using the Microsoft Word “endnotes” or “footnotes” functions, if these were used in drafts ensure that all reference numbers and corresponding references are converted to plain text before submission; alternatively, you may manage your references using commercial EndNote or Reference Manager software.
  • Figures must be submitted as separate picture files, at the correct resolution and named according to the figure number, e.g., “Fig1.tif”, “Fig2.jpg”. Please see Figures section for more information.

3.1.2. English language usage and editing

Please write your text in good American English; it is important that reviewers and editors can understand the research that your manuscript describes to make a fair assessment of its merit, as well as for readers who are not experts in the field to understand why and how you did the work, your findings, and the implications. Remember to use built-in word-processor spelling and grammar checking tools to correct most obvious errors before submission. If possible, ask a native English speaker to review your manuscript to ensure that it is written clearly enough to be easily understood by the AMH’s international readership.

Authors who are still concerned that their English language manuscript may require editing to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Full Universe Integrated Marketing Limited; our professional editors will make sure that your article is clear and identify errors, omissions, discrepancies, or other potential issues that should be addressed before submission. Authors should note that using a language editing service is not a prerequisite for selection for peer review, and will neither assure acceptance for publication by the AMH. Manuscripts accepted by the AMH will be further checked for spelling and style by the Editorial Office before publication.

3.2. Manuscript Sections

A manuscript should include a title page, abstract, text, references, conflicts of interest statement, acknowledgments (if any), and figures and tables as appropriate. Begin each section on a new page and number pages consecutively, beginning with the title page.

3.2.1. Title Page

The title page should contain the following information (in order, from top to bottom of the page):

  • Article category
  • Article title
  • Names (spelled out in full*) and academic degrees of all authors, and the institutions with which they are affiliated; indicate all affiliations with a superscripted lowercase letter after the author’s name and in front of the matching affiliation
  • Corresponding author details (name, e-mail, mailing address, telephone and fax numbers)

*Write each author’s name with the family name last, eg, Wan-Lin Chang. Authorship is restricted to direct participants who contributed significantly to the work.

3.2.2. Abstract and Key Words

An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so must stand alone; therefore, avoid citing references unless essential, in which case cite the author(s) and year(s). Avoid abbreviations, especially non-standard or uncommon ones; if essential, define each at its first mention in the abstract text.

Reviews, Original Research articles and Case Reports require an abstract of 250 words or fewer; the maximum allowed for Brief Communications is 150 words.

Abstracts for Original Articles should be structured, using the following subsection headings:

Background/Purpose: explain the importance of the study topic and state a precise study question or purpose.

Methods: introduce the methods used to perform the study; include information on the study design, setting, subjects, interventions, outcome measures and analyses as appropriate.

Results: present the significant results, with data and statistical details such as p values where appropriate; be sure that information in the abstract is the same as in the main text.

Conclusion: state the meaning of your findings, being careful to address the study question directly and to confine your conclusions to aspects covered in the abstract; give equal emphasis to positive and negative findings.

Abstracts for Review Articles, Brief Communications and Case Reports should be unstructured, in one single paragraph with no section headings, but include information on the background/purpose of the report, methods (as appropriate), results (or case report), and conclusions.

Editorials and Letters to the Editor do not require an abstract or key words. For all other article categories, provide 3–5 relevant key words listed alphabetically, which will be used for indexing purposes. Key words should ideally be taken from the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) list of Index Medicus ( Avoid general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid “and”, “of”). Avoid abbreviations; only those firmly established in the field may be eligible.

3.2.3. Main Text

The text for Original Research articles and Brief Communications should be organized into the following sections: Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Conflicts of Interest Statement, Acknowledgments (if any), and References. The AMH encourages subheadings in long papers for clarity and ease of reading. Sections for Case Reports are: Introduction, Case Presentation, Discussion, Conflicts of Interest Statement, Acknowledgments (if any), and References. Begin each section on a new page.


Where a term/definition will be referred to continually, it must be written in full when first used, followed by the abbreviation in parentheses; thereafter, the abbreviation may be used. An abbreviation should not be first defined in any section heading; if an abbreviation has previously been defined in the text, then the abbreviation may be used in a subsequent section heading. Restrict the number of abbreviations to those that are absolutely necessary and ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.

Units & Numbers

Système International (SI) units must be used, except for blood pressure values, which are reported in mmHg. Please use the metric system for measurements of length, area, mass, and volume. Give temperatures in degrees Celsius.

Numbers from one to nine, or which begin a sentence, should be spelled out in letters. Centuries and decades should be spelled out too; eg, the Eighties or nineteenth century. Laboratory parameters, time, temperature, length, area, mass, and volume should be expressed using digits.

Names of Drugs, Devices and other Products

Use the Recommended International Nonproprietary Name for medicinal substances, unless the trade name of a drug is directly relevant to the discussion. Generic drug names should appear in lowercase letters in the text. If a specific proprietary drug needs to be identified, the brand name may appear only once in the manuscript, in parentheses following the first mention of the generic name in the text.

For devices and other products, the specific brand or trade name, the manufacturer and their location (city, state, country) should be provided the first time the device or product is mentioned in the text, for example, “…IBM SPSS Statistics 21.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA)”. Thereafter, the generic term (if appropriate) should be used.

Gene Nomenclature

Adhere to current standard international nomenclature for genes. For human genes, use genetic notation and symbols approved by the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee ( You may also refer to the resources available on PubMed at The Human Genome Variation Society has a useful site that provides guidance in naming mutations at Type gene names in italic font and include the accession number.

Statistical Requirements

Statistical analysis is essential for all research papers except Case Reports. Use correct nomenclature of statistical methods (eg, two sample t test, not unpaired t test). Descriptive statistics should follow the scales used in data description. Inferential statistics are important for interpreting results and should be described in detail.

Present all p values to three decimal places: the smallest p value that should be expressed is p <0.001, since additional zeros do not convey useful information; the largest p value that should be expressed is p >0.99.

Personal Communications and Unpublished Data

Unpublished sources cannot be included in the reference list but may be described in the text. The author(s) must give the full name and highest academic degree of the person cited, the date of the communication, and indicate whether it was oral or written (letter, fax, e-mail). A signed statement of permission should be included from each person identified as a source of information in a personal communication or as a source for unpublished data.

3.2.4. Conflicts of Interest Statement

Since it is difficult to distinguish between an actual conflict of interest and a perceived conflict of interest, the AMH requires authors to disclose all and any potential conflicts of interest and let readers judge for themselves. Therefore, please ensure that you provide information about any potential financial and non-financial conflicts of interest (see Section 2 for more information) in a concise paragraph after the main text. If no such conflicts exist, this should also be stated.

All financial and material support from internal or external agencies, including commercial companies, for the research reported and/or writing and editorial assistance should be clearly and completely identified in a Funding/Support Statement.

3.2.5. Acknowledgments

After the Conflicts of Interest Statement and/or Funding/Support Statement, concisely list general acknowledgments of persons who contributed substantially to the work reported, but who do not meet the criteria for full authorship (eg, technical assistance, consultations, statistical analysis, medical writing/editing services). Such acknowledgements should name the individuals who were directly involved, and disclose their source(s) of funding if applicable; those so acknowledged must first have given their written permission to be named. Those acknowledged should not include secretarial, clerical or technical staff whose participation was limited to the performance of their normal duties. If your manuscript does not include any such Acknowledgments, this indicates that non-authors did not make any substantial contributions.

3.2.6. Figures

General Guidelines

Restrict the number of figures to the minimum necessary to support the textual material. Number figure in order of their citation in the text and give each an informative figure legend, which should define all symbols and abbreviations used in alphabetical order. Items requiring explanatory footnotes should follow the same style as that for tables.

If you reproduce/adapt a block of data, table, or figure from another source, whether published or unpublished, you must acknowledge the original source, and if necessary, obtain a copyright license from the original publisher.

Unless you have written permission from the patient (or, where applicable, the next of kin), potentially identifying personal details (such as a patient’s name, sex, and/or date of birth) must be removed. Please note that masking the eye region in patient photographs is inadequate protection of anonymity.

All lettering should be rendered professionally and in proportion to the drawing, graph or photograph. Photomicrographs must include an internal scale marker, and the legend should state the type of specimen, original magnification and stain.

Figures must be submitted as separate picture files at the correct resolution (see below), which should be named according to the figure number and format, eg, “Fig1.tif”, “Fig2.jpg”.


Regardless of the application used, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please “save as” or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):

  • EPS: Vector drawings. Embed the font or save the text as “graphics”
  • TIFF: Color or grayscale photographs (halftones) – always use a minimum resolution of 300 dpi
  • TIFF: Bitmapped line drawings – use a minimum resolution of 1,000 dpi
  • TIFF: Combination of bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale) –minimum resolution of 600 dpi
  • DOC, XLS or PPT: If your electronic artwork is created in any of these Microsoft Office applications, please supply “as is”

Please do not:

  • Supply files that do not meet the resolution requirements detailed above
  • Supply files that are optimized for screen use (such as GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG) as the resolution is too low
  • Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content

3.2.7. Tables

Tables should complement, not duplicate, the text. Give each table a concise heading and number them consecutively in the order of their citation in the text. Tables should be self-explanatory; items requiring explanatory footnotes should be denoted using superscripted lowercase letters (a,b,c, etc.), with the footnotes arranged under the table in alphabetical order. Use asterisks (*,**)only to indicate the probability level of tests of significance. Define abbreviations used in the table in alphabetical order after the footnotes.

3.2.8. Supplementary Data

The AMH encourages authors to conform to the maximum number of tables, figures, and references permitted for the article type that they are submitting. Articles that fail to follow these Instructions to Authors may be returned to the authors without review. However, authors may submit additional supporting tables/figures/data as supplementary files via the online submission system at, with options to specify whether or not such materials are for review.

  • Please supply supplementary files in standard formats, eg, MS Word, MS Excel, PDF, JPEG, at the minimum possible file size compatible with legibility
  • Remember to provide appropriate citations to supplementary files accordingly, using consecutive numbers, within the manuscript text (eg, Supplementary Table 1, Supplementary Table 2, Appendix 1, Supplementary Figure 1, etc.)
  • Please note that the AMH will publish such materials as an online resource exactly as submitted, with no editing, reformatting or changes to the file type

3.2.9. References

Authors are responsible for the accuracy and completeness of their references and for correct in-text citation.

In the Main Text, Tables, Figure Legends

  • Indicate references using superscript numbers, according to their order of appearance in the text, and placed after punctuation. Actual authors may be referred to, but the reference number(s) must always be given too
  • References cited in tables or figure legends should be included in sequence at the point where the table or figure is first mentioned in the main text
  • Do not cite abstracts unless they are the only available reference to an important concept
  • Do not cite uncompleted work or work that has not yet been accepted for publication (i.e., “unpublished observation”, “personal communication”) as references

In the References List

  • References should be limited to those cited in the text and listed in numerical order, NOT alphabetical order
  • References should include, in order: authors’ family name and initials, article title, abbreviated journal name, year, volume and inclusive page numbers
  • Include the family name and initials of all authors up to six; if authors are more than six, list the first three and followed by “et al.” (e.g., Smith AA, Jones BA, Bloggs JC, et al.)
  • Journal name abbreviations should conform to those used in MEDLINE
  • If citing a website, provide the author information, article title, website address and the date you accessed the information
  • Reference to an article that is in press must state the journal name and, if possible, the year and volume

Examples of the most common reference types are provided below. Please pay particular attention to the formatting, word capitalization, spacing and style.

Standard journal articles

Cheng YY, Chen PY, Hsieh WL, Cheen JR, Kao CL. Correlation of the composite equilibrium score of computerized dynamic posturography and clinical balance tests. J Clin Gerontol Geriatr. 2012;3(2):77-81. doi: 10.1016/j.jcgg.2012.04.004.

Chen YC, Tsai KL, Hung CW, et al. Induced pluripotent stem cells and regenerative medicine. J Clin Gerontol Geriatr. 2011;2(1):1-6. doi:10.1016/j.jcgg.2010.12.003.

Journal supplement

Kaplan NM. The endothelium as prognostic factor and therapeutic target: what criteria should we apply? J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1998;32(Suppl 3):S78-80.

Journal article not in English but with English abstract

Hofele C, Schwager-Schmitt M, Volkmann M. Prognostic value of antibodies against p53 in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma-five years survival rate. Laryngorhinootologie. 2002;81:342-5. [In German, English abstract]

Book with edition

Bradley EL. Medical and surgical management. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 1982, p. 72-95.

Book with editors

Letheridge S, Cannon CR, editors. Bilingual education: Teaching English as a second language. New York: Praeger; 1980.

Book chapter in book with editor and edition

Greaves M, Culligan DJ. Blood and bone marrow. In: Underwood JCE, editor. General and systematic pathology. 4th ed. London: Churchill Livingstone; 2004, p. 615-72.

Book series with editors

Wilson JG, Fraser FC, editors. Handbook of teratology, vols. 1-4. New York: Plenum Press; 1977-1978.


World Health Organization. World health report 2002: reducing risk, promoting healthy life. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2002.

Electronic publications

Duchin JS. Can preparedness for biological terrorism save us from pertussis? Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2004;158(2). Accessed on 12 June 2004 at:

Smeeth L, Iliffe S. Community screening for visual impairment in the elderly. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006;(3):CD001054. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001054.pub2.

Item presented at a meeting but not yet published

Khuri FR, Lee JJ, Lippman SM. Isotretinoin effects on head and neck cancer recurrence and second primary tumors. In: Proceedings from the American Society of Clinical Oncology, May 31-June 3, 2003; Chicago, IL, abstract 359.

Item presented at a meeting and published

Cionni RJ. Color perception in patients with UV- or bluelight-filtering IOLs. In: Symposium on cataract, IOL, and refractive surgery. San Diego, CA: American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery; 2004, abstract 337.


Ayers AJ. Retention of resin restorations by means of enamel etching and by pins. MSD thesis, Indiana University School of Dentistry, Indianapolis, 1971.


Glueckauf RL, Whitton J, Baxter J. Videocounseling for families of rural teens with epilepsy-project update. Telehealth News. 1998. Accessed on 15 November 2008 at:

Company/manufacturer publication/pamphlet

Eastman Kodak Company, Eastman Organic Chemicals. Catalog no. 49. Rochester, NY: Eastman Kodak; 1977, p. 2-3.


Manuscripts (meaning all items relating to the submission, including text, tables, artwork, cover letter, conflicts of interest disclosures, and any other required documents/material) must be submitted via the online system at

4.1. Supporting Documents

Your submission must include the following documents (refer also to the Checklist that follows these author instructions). Items (1), (2) and (3) are mandatory. Items (4), (5), (6) and (7) are required only if applicable to your manuscript.

1) Cover Letter. This must include:

  • Manuscript title
  • Corresponding author details (name, e-mail, mailing address, telephone and fax numbers)
  • A statement that material contained in the manuscript has not been previously published and is not being concurrently submitted elsewhere
  • Persons who do not fulfill the requirements to be listed as authors but who nevertheless contributed to the manuscript (eg, others who provided writing assistance) should be disclosed, including their source of funding (if any)
  • List of manuscripts either published, submitted, or in press that are similar to the submission to the AMH (include copies of such similar manuscripts so that AMH Editors can be assured there is no overlap)

2) Authorship & Conflicts of Interest Statement. Each author’s contribution to the manuscript should be listed. Any and all potential and actual conflicts of interest should also be listed (see Section 2 for more information). Please use the AMH Authorship & Conflicts of Interest Statement form that follows these author instructions and that is also provided on the Journal’s website at Your signature and those of ALL coauthors must be included.

3) Copyright Transfer Agreement. Authors of manuscripts accepted by the AMH are required to transfer copyright to the Asian Association for Frailty and Sarcopenia (AAFS). Please use the AMH Copyright Transfer Agreement form that follows these author instructions and that is also provided on the Journal’s website at Your signature and those of ALL coauthors must be included.

4) Ethics Statement. Articles covering the use of human or animal samples in research, or human or animal experiments must be accompanied by a letter of approval from the relevant review committee or authorities.

5) Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) flow chart for randomized controlled trials submitted for publication.

6) Signed Statement of Informed Consent. Articles where human subjects can be identified in descriptions, photographs or pedigrees must be accompanied by a signed statement of informed consent to publish (in print and online) the descriptions, photographs and pedigrees from each subject who can be identified.

7) Copyright Permission. If you have reproduced or adapted material from other copyrighted sources, the letter(s) of permission from the copyright holder(s) to reproduce or adapt the copyrighted sources must be supplied. Otherwise, such material must be removed from your manuscript.

4.2. Submission Declaration

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except as an abstract, part of a published lecture or academic thesis, or as an electronic preprint); that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out; and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere including electronically in the same form, in any language, without the written consent of the copyright-holder.

4.3. Copyright

Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a Copyright Transfer Agreement, which is available from the Journal website and via the online submission interface.

4.3.1. Author rights

As an author, you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. The AMH uses an exclusive licensing agreement for open access publishing. Authors will transfer copyright to the Asian Association for Frailty and Sarcopenia (AAFS), but are granted the right to share their article in the same way permitted to third parties under the relevant user license, as well as certain scholarly usage rights.

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs
For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and/or copy the article, or include it in a collective work (such as an anthology), on condition that they credit the author(s) and provided that they do not alter or modify the article.

4.4. The Editorial and Peer Review Process

The AMH Editorial Office typically acknowledges receipt of a manuscript within 2 weeks of submission, and will give the authors a manuscript reference number for future correspondence. The author(s) should contact the Editorial Office if such an acknowledgment is not received within a reasonable period of time.

The Editorial Office reviews submitted articles to ensure that they comply fully with these Instructions to Authors and will not accept submissions that do not.

Correctly prepared manuscripts are forwarded to the Editor-in-Chief, for initial assessment; manuscripts adjudged to be inappropriate for the journal or of insufficient merit will be rejected without further review.

Manuscripts deemed meritorious and appropriate for publication by the AMH are sent to at least two Editorial Board members or expert consultants for double-blind peer review. The reviewers’ opinions are summarized and forwarded to the Editor-in-Chief for a final decision.

The corresponding author will usually be notified within 8 weeks of the initial acknowledgment as to whether the submitted article is accepted for publication, rejected, or provisionally accepted subject to revision (however, do note that delays are sometimes unavoidable). If revisions are required, authors are asked to return a revised manuscript to the Editorial Office within 30-60 days. Please notify the Editorial Office in advance if additional time is needed or if you elect not to submit a revised manuscript. If a revised manuscript is not returned in 30-60 days with no request of additional time, the article will be rejected.

4.4.1 Peer Review

The AMH operates a blind review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor has ultimate responsibility for accepting or rejecting an article, and this decision is final.


5.1. Preparation for Publication

Once their manuscript is accepted for publication, the author(s) should submit the final version in Microsoft Word format, with all tables/figures as applicable. Accepted manuscripts are then sent for copyediting by the publisher according to the Journal’s style.

5.1.1. Page Proofs

Proofreading is solely the authors’ responsibility. Note that the Editorial Board reserves the right to make revisions to the manuscript and Full Universe Integrated Marketing Limited may proceed with the publication of your article if no response from the author(s) is received.

5.1.2. Changes to Authorship

This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts. Before the accepted manuscript is published online, requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the AMH Editorial Office from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include: i) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged; and ii) an updated Authorship & Conflicts of Interest Statement with signatures from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of author names, this must include confirmation from the author(s) being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the AMH Editorial Office to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedures as described above.

Note that: 1) The AMH Editorial Office will inform the Journal Editors of any such requests, and 2) online publication of the accepted manuscript is suspended until authorship has been agreed. After the accepted manuscript is published online, any requests to add, remove, or rearrange author names in an article will follow the same policies as detailed above and result in a corrigendum.


6.1. Forms

6.2. English Language Editing

Authors who are still concerned that their English language manuscript may require editing to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Full Universe Integrated Marketing Limited; our professional editors will make sure that your article is clear and identify errors, omissions, discrepancies, or other potential issues that should be addressed before submission. Authors should note that using a language editing service is not a prerequisite for selection for peer review, and will neither assure acceptance for publication by the AMH.

6.3. Editorial Office

The Editor-in-Chief
Aging Medicine and Healthcare
c/o Asia Association for Frailty and Sarcopenia
Taipei Veterans General Hospital,
201, Section 2, Shih-Pai Road, Taipei 112, Taiwan.

6.4. Publisher

Admin Center Contact
Aging Medicine and Healthcare
Full Universe Integrated Marketing Limited

Updated Jan 2020